Gynecology is the branch of medicine dealing with the administration of health care to women, especially the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the female reproductive organs.it deals with the study of diseases of the female reproductive organs, including the breasts.

Obstetrics is a branch of medicine that deals with the birth of children and with the care of women before, during, and after they give birth to children. The art and science of managing pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium i.e, the time after delivery.

Common Gynecology and Obstetrics conditions:

Birth-control

A generic term for the physical, chronological and hormonal manoeuvres used to prevent pregnancy. birth control the concept of limiting the size of families by measures designed to prevent conception, controls reproduction, by either improving or diminishing fertility.

Endometriosis

It is a condition in which bits of the tissue similar to the lining of the uterus (endometrium) grow in other parts of the body. Like the uterine lining, this tissue builds up and sheds in response to monthly hormonal cycles. However, there is no natural outlet for the blood discarded from these implants. Instead, it falls onto surrounding organs, causing swelling and inflammation. This repeated irritation leads to the development of scar tissue and adhesions in the area of the endometrial implants.

Menstrual cycle

The recurring cycle of physiological changes in the uterus, ovaries, and other sexual structures that occur from the beginning of one menstrual period through the beginning of the next. A hormonally regulated series of monthly events that occur during the reproductive years of the human female to ensure that the properinternal environment exists for fertilization, implantation, and development of a baby. Each month, a mature egg is released from the follicle of an ovary. If an egg is released, fertilized, and implanted, the lining of the uterus continues to build. If fertilization and/or implantation does not occur, the egg and all of the excess uterine lining are shed from the body during menstruation.

Pregnancy

The period from conception to birth. After the egg is fertilized by a sperm and then implanted in the lining of the uterus, it develops into theplacenta and embryo, and later into a fetus. Pregnancy usually lasts 40 weeks, beginning from the first day of the woman’s last menstrualperiod, and is divided into three trimesters, each lasting three months.

Hysterectomy

It is the surgical removal of the uterus. In a total hysterectomy, the uterus and cervix are removed. In some cases, the fallopian tubes and ovaries are removed along with the uterus. In a subtotal hysterectomy, only the uterus is removed. In a radical hysterectomy, the uterus, cervix, ovaries, oviducts, lymph nodes, and lymph channels are removed. The type of hysterectomy performed depends on the reason for the procedure. In all cases, menstruation stops and a woman loses the ability to bear children.

Endometrial Cancer

Endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the uterus. The uterus is the hollow, pear-shaped pelvic organ in women where fetal development occurs. Endometrial cancer begins in the layer of cells that form the lining (endometrium) of the uterus. Endometrial cancer is sometimes called uterine cancer.

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

It is a problem in which a woman’s hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with your periods and make it difficult to get pregnant. PCOS also may cause unwanted changes in the way you look. If it isn’t treated, over time it can lead to serious health problems, such as diabetes and heart disease.

Pregnancy Diabetes

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy (1). The definition applies whether insulin or only diet modification is used for treatment and whether or not the condition persists after pregnancy. It does not exclude the possibility that unrecognized glucose intolerance may have antedated or begun concomitantly with the pregnancy.

Cesarean Delivery

It is also known as a C-section — is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby through an incision in the mother’s abdomen and a second incision in the mother’s uterus. A C-section might be planned ahead of time if you develop pregnancy complications or you’ve had a previous C-section and aren’t considering vaginal birth after cesarean (VBAC). Often, however, the need for a first-time C-section doesn’t become obvious until labor is under way.

Corpus Luteum

It is a temporary endocrine structure in female mammals that is involved in the production of relatively high levels of progesterone and moderate levels of estradiol and inhibin A. It is colored as a result of concentrating carotenoids (including lutein) from the diet and secretes a moderate amount of estrogento inhibit further release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and thus secretion of luteinising hormone (LH) andfollicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). A new corpus luteum develops with each menstrual cycle.

Menopause Symptoms

If menopausal symptoms occur, they may include hot flashes, night sweats, pain during intercourse, increased anxiety or irritability, and the need to urinate more often. Your menstrual cycles may lengthen or shorten, and you may begin having menstrual cycles in which your ovaries don’t release an egg (ovulate). You may also experience menopause like symptoms, such as hot flashes, sleep problems and vaginal dryness.

IUD

It is also called as intrauterine contraceptive device which is inserted into the uterus (womb) to prevent conception (pregnancy). The IUD can be a coil, loop, triangle, or T in shape made of plastic or metal. An IUD is inserted into the uterus by a health-care professional. Of two types of IUDs approved in the U.S., one can remain in place for 10 years, while the other must be replaced every year.

Abortion Pill

A drug taken orally to induce abortion especially early in pregnancy. This medication most often is used for ending early pregnancies. Low dose mifepristone also showed success as a treatment for uterine fibroids, or benign growths in the muscular tissue of a woman’s uterus. However, many uses of the drug other than for abortions were still experimental, even if promising.